Black HIV patients have a much higher risk of kidney failure, also known as end-stage renal disease, than their white counterparts. In a recent study of more than 2 million patients in Virginia, researchers determined that the risk of kidney failure faced by black HIV positive people is comparable to the risk faced by people with diabetes, a well-established cause of kidney disease. The researchers say that more emphasis needs to be placed on screening and management of kidney disease among black patients with HIV.